Offering False Evidence at Trial – Penal Code Section 132 Penal Code Section 132 strongly punishes any attorney or other person who intentionally causes false or altered evidence to be introduced at trial. The statute is designed to protect the integrity of legal proceedings. Elements of the Offense: The prosecution must prove the following evidence…

Preparing False Statement or Report Under Oath – Penal Code Section 129 Penal Code Section 129 is part of the overall legislative scheme to prevent perjury and protect the integrity of the legal system. Any person who violates Penal Code Section 129 is guilty of the crime of perjury as defined in Sections 118 and…

Willfully Causing the Execution of an Innocent Person – Penal Code Section 128 Penal Code Section 128 was passed by the Legislature to deter witnesses from offering untruthful testimony to unjustly cause the execution of someone facing the death penalty.1 Under California law, every person who, by means of perjury or subornation of perjury, causes…

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Subornation of Perjury – Penal Code Section 127 The crime of subornation of perjury occurs whenever a person solicits someone else to commit perjury. A person commits perjury when he knowingly and intentionally lies about a material fact in any legal proceeding.1 Elements of the Offense: To prove the crime of subornation of perjury, the…

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Perjury – Penal Code Section 118 The crime of perjury occurs when a person intentionally lies about an important matter in a legal proceeding. Elements of the Offense To convict a person of the crime of perjury, the prosecutor must prove the following elements beyond a reasonable doubt: 1. The defendant took an oath or…

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Recording a False or Forged Instrument – Penal Code Section 115 Penal Code Section 115 penalizes the unlawful filing of false or forged documents with public agencies. Elements of the Offense Under Penal Code Section 115, a person is guilty of a crime if the prosecution can prove the following elements beyond a reasonable doubt:…

Use of False Citizenship or Resident Status Documents – Penal Code Section 114 California law punishes any person convicted of using false documents to hide their immigration status. Elements of the Offense: To conviction you of a felony or a misdemeanor under Penal Code Section 114, the prosecution must prove the following elements beyond a…

Creating, Distributing, or Selling Falsified Citizenship or Resident Alien Documents – Penal Code Section 113 The controversial Proposition 187 ballot initiative of 1994 created a felony crime for any person convicted of manufacturing, distributing or selling false documents intended to: • Conceal the true citizenship status of any person; • Conceal the true resident alien…

Penal Code Section 112 punishes those who sell or manufacture false government documents in California.

Manufacturing or Sale of False Government Documents – Penal Code Section 112 It is a misdemeanor under Penal Code Section 112 to sell or manufacture false government documents with the intent to help another person conceal the true nature of their citizenship or resident alien status. If the police find you with more than one…

Willfully Assisting An Inmate to Escape From a Public Training School or a Reformatory, Penal Code Section 109 Any person who assists an inmate to escape from a public training school or reformatory is guilty of a felony pursuant to Penal Code Section 109. Section 109 is considered a crime against public justice. To prove…